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Clay Paky S.P.A. is one of the world’s leading developers of professional lighting systems for the entertainment sector theatre ,television,concerts,nightclubs ,outdoor events and for architectural applications. The company is based in Italy.It operates from a modern facility housing its R&D labs, main production plant and quality control ,sales and administration quality control departments. At present Clay Paky exports 95% of its production through a global sales and service organization represented by a dealer network active in more than 80 countries around the world.
Inverse Square Law: The quantity of light is inversely proportional to the square of its distance, i.e., illumination (fc) = Intensity (cd) / Distance2 (ft2). Say a light is placed 1 foot away from the subject. If the distance is doubled to two feet, the square of its distance is (22) or 2 x 2 = 4. The inverse of 4 is ¼. Therefore, the quantity of light falling on the subject from 2 feet will be ¼ the amount of light falling on the subject from the original 1 foot. If the light is moved to a distance of 8 feet, the square of its distance is (82) or 8 x 8 = 64. The inverse of 64 is 1/64. The quantity of light on the subject from 8 feet will be 1/64 the amount of light that falls on the subject from 1 foot away. Each time you roughly increase the distance incrementally, you open up your aperture two, three, four stops, etc., to compensate for the light falloff. Iodide: A halogen gas used in lamps to maintain proper color temperature. Iris: Short for Iris Diaphragm. Iris Diaphragm: An arrangement of thin movable heat-resistant metal plates, i.e. leaves, that form an adjustable circular opening. They are usually placed within an ellipsoidal spotlight or follow spot in order to adjust the diameter of the beam, or in some cases, to mechanically dim the beam. K: Abbreviation for Kelvin. Short for Kilowatt in the theatre, film and video industries. Kelvin (K): In the metric system, a graduated scale used to measure temperature with 0° (-273° C) being the total absence of heat (absolute zero). Each degree is the same magnitude as a degree in the centigrade scale. The Kelvin scale is used to gauge color temperature. Key Light (Main Light): The principle source of light, which establishes the character of the lighting, including atmosphere and mood. It may suggest a source, like the sun, or a window. Key Grip: The supervising grip on a production; the person ultimately responsible for all other grips and grip equipment. Kicker: A sideline, low angle back light that adds a slight edge light to the side of the subject. Kilowatt (kW): 1000 watts. Lamp: Any light source in a self-contained package composed of an envelope (containing gas, filaments, etc.), filament or electrodes, base, contacts, gas and any support structures. The source can be of the incandescent, fluorescent, quartz halogen, LED or arc type. Quite often this term is used interchangeably with light source. Lamp Base: The part of a lamp to which the electrical connections are made; the part with the contacts. It is often the mechanical support or heat sink for the lamp. Lavender: A type of material used for fabric scrims. Leads: The electric cable(s) or sleeved, insulated wires, attached to a light source or piece of power distribution equipment, that terminate in a connector for the purpose of providing an electrical connection to the electrical supply or to another light source. LED: Otherwise known as “Light Emitting Diode.” LED lights give off light and little-to-no heat (making them safer fixtures as well) and are more environmentally friendly than standard lighting fixtures. Leko: A commonly used term for an ellipsoidal spotlight. Named after its inventors Joseph Levy and Edward Kook, the names Leko and Lekolite are trademarked by Strand Lighting Corporation. Lens: A transparent material, usually glass, shaped to bend light rays as they pass through it. Colored lenses can also be used as color media. Light: Illumination; the aspect of radiant energy of which a human observer is aware through a visual sense. Its electromagnetic radiation has a wavelength longer than ultraviolet radiation but shorter than infrared radiation, i.e., approximately 380mm (violet) to 750mm (red). A term that is often used interchangeably with light source. Light Distribution: The way in which illumination of any color or quantity is spread over a particular background. Lighting Ratio: The percentage of key light to fill light. Optimum and maximum lighting ratios depend upon subject matter, mood, media and type of reproduction, as well as personal tastes. In television a timid ratio is 2:1 (twice as much key as fill), a dramatic one, 8:1 (eight times as much key as fill, popular for film-noir look); a maximum one, about 16:1. Also called Brightness Ratio. Light Meter: An apparatus used to measure various quantities of light such as color temperature, foot-candles, lux, flash, etc. Light Source: Anything that emits light, such as an arc or a filament, a lamp or light head, bulb or flash. Light Spill: A general term used to describe any stray light, including light leaks. Location Fresnel: A Fresnel spotlight used primarily in non-standard production settings such as locations other than stages or studios. Because portability is generally a concern, they tend to be smaller in size when compared to studio Fresnel’s of the same wattage. Long Throw: A term used to describe a light source that has an effective intensity at a relatively long distance. This term is very subjective and dependent on the type of light source used. Louver: An opening provided with one or more slanted fixed or movable fins to control the angle of light, like venetian blinds for lighting. Lowboy (Loboy): A heavy-duty stand designed to hold light sources or heavy grip equipment. The stand is equipped with wheels and short risers, and a 1 and 1/8" receiver and a grip head. Low Key: A lighting style in which the majority of the scene is scarcely illuminated, usually enhanced by shadows and dark costumes and sets. A high ratio of key light to fill light increases the contrast, helping to obtain this effect. Lumen(s): A unit of measurement for Luminous Flux, a measure of the total "amount" of visible light emitted by a source. A measure of brightness most commonly used when referring to video projectors. Brighter projectors are required for larger screens or in rooms with natural light. Luminous Flux: The rate of flow of light energy evaluated, in Lumens, with reference to visual sensation; the part of the total energy radiated per unit time from a luminous source that is capable of producing the sensation of sight. Lux: A metric unit of measurement for Illumination, e.g. 1 lumen per square meter. Magnetic: A term used to describe an apparatus that utilizes a magnetic field to function. Magnetic Ballast: A ballast that uses a magnetic field to limit electrical current. These types of ballasts generally do not prevent flicker. Magnetic Transformer: A transformer that uses a magnetic field to convert voltage from one value to another. Simple common magnetic transformers consist of two wire coils wrapped around an iron core, each winding having its own pair of leads, one pair for the application of an input voltage, and the other pair for the output voltage. Male: A term applied to a connector that contains the pins, prongs, blades, or tabs for insertion into the holes or slots of a female connector. The male connector should never be attached to the line side of a circuit. Mercury Vapour Lamp: An arc lamp whose gas is primarily mercury vapour. Metal Halide Lamp: An arc lamp that uses mercury vapour combined with metal halides, that when heated, radiates light with a color temperature of approximately 5500°K. MFL: A lamp designation that means medium flood. Modeling Light: A continuous burning light in the center of a flash unit used to preview the location of the illumination and shadows from the flash burst. Mogul Base: A lamp base that falls in the larger range of sizes for the type of base in question, i.e., approximately 1 and 1/2" diameter for screw and pre-focus type bases, approximately 1 and 1/2" post-to-post distance for bipost bases and approximately 1 and 1/6" prong-to-prong distance for end prong and extended end prong bases. Muslin: A material used for fabric scrims used in the theatre, film and video industries. Also used in the manufacturing of backgrounds. MR Lamp: Originally, this designation meant a lamp with a small, integral, multi-faceted reflector, but has since come to designate a lamp with a small, integral, mirrored reflector. The reflector could be parabolic or ellipsoidal. Mylar: A type of plastic that can withstand fairly high temperatures and is used in the manufacture color media. N: Nanometer (nm). A unit of measurement commonly used for wavelengths of light, equal to 1/1,000,000,000 meters. Neutral Density Filter: A filter that reduces the intensity of light without affecting its color. NFL: A lamp designation that means narrow flood. Noise: Short for Electrical Noise. Non-Dim: A term used to describe a circuit that does not pass through a dimmer. A term used to describe a load that is not intended to be connected to a dimmer. NSP: A lamp designation that means narrow spot. O: Open Face. A term used to describe the light sources that use no lenses. Operating Pole: A long, lightweight rod with a handle on one end and an attachment on the other for the purpose of adjusting or switching on poleoperated yokes, light sources, pantographs, etc. Overhead: A large scrim, diffuser, reflector, or opaque fabric panel, used for dimming, softening, bounce lighting and shading, respectively, with the light source being a lamp or sunlight. They are usually 12' to 40' square and mounted on stand-supported frames. PAR: An abridged version of Par Lamp, Par Can or Par Light. Parabolic Reflector: A reflector designed to align light rays generally parallel to the axis formed by the point source and the center of the reflector, eventually resulting in a cylindrical-to-wide beam. The reflector has the shape of a parabola. PAR Can: A generally lightweight light source that uses a PAR lamp, or in some cases, ray light reflector kit. The light beam characteristics depend on the type of lamp used. PAR Lamp: A designation for a lamp with a parabolic aluminized reflector. PAR Light: A generally lightweight light source that utilizes a PAR lamp. The beam characteristics depend on the type of PAR lamp used. Pattern: A very thin, heat-resistant metal plate with a pattern cut out of its surface. When placed into the aperture of an ellipsoidal spotlight or follow spot via the pattern slot, an illuminated representation of the design is projected as the light shines through the cutouts. Pattern Holder: A metal frame with a knob used to place patterns into the pattern slot of a light source. Pattern Rotator: A motorized pattern holder that spins the pattern. Photometric: A term used to describe anything that involves the measurement of light. Photometric Data: Measurements of light and its properties. Photo-metrics: Short for Photometric Data. Photometry: The science of measuring light and its properties. Pigeon: A small metal plate with nail holes and a 5/8" stud attached. Pigtail: The relatively short electric cable, power cord, or leads on a light source or piece of power distribution equipment that may or may not have a connector installed. Pigtail Connector: A connector that is installed on a pigtail. Pin Spot: A spotlight that has an extremely narrow beam. Pipe Clamp: A “C” shaped clamp with jaws that attaches onto a pipe and locks with the aid of a bolt, that when tightened, bites into the pipe and locks the clamp in place. It also has a secondary bolt for the attachment of light sources, distribution equipment, etc. Plano: A term used to describe a lens side that is perfectly flat. Plano-Convex Lens: A lens that is flat on one side and convex on the other. These lenses focus light rays passing through them into a beam. Polarizing Filters: Polarizing camera filters can be set to reduce most glare, as well as darken blue skies. Best camera angle: 90° to the source light. Light loss: approximately two stops.