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High Gain Screen: Material that reflects more light than a reference. material. Increases a projector's light output at the expense of uniformity. IEEE 1394: Networking standard for PCs. Combined with 5C copy protection, is used as a two-way connection to transfer the MPEG- compressed digital bitstreams between consumer electronics items, including HDTV tuners and displays, D-VHS recorders, DVD players, and DBS receivers. Also called FireWire, iLink. In Sync: When the picture and sound are synchronized perfectly. Incue/Inq/In-Point: These words all refer to the initial few seconds of audio signifying the beginning of the production. Interlace: Process of alternating scan lines to create a complete image. In CRT displays, every second field/frame is scanned between the first field/frame. The first field represents the odd lines; the second field represents the even lines. The fields are aligned and timed so that, with a still image, the human eye blurs the two fields together and sees them as one. Interlace scanning allows only half the lines to be transmitted and presented at any given moment. A 1080i HD signal transmits and displays only 540 lines per 60th of a second. 480i NTSC transmits and displays only 240 lines per 60th of a second. Motion in the image can make the fields noticeable. Interlaced images have motion artifacts when two fields don't match to create the complete frame, often most noticeable in film-based material. Keystone: A form of video image distortion in which the top of the picture is wider than the bottom, or the left is taller than the right, or vice versa. The image is shaped like a trapezoid rather than a rectangle. Laser Disc: Now-defunct 12-inch disc format with excellent analog, FMrecorded video image, and either analog or CD-quality PCM-encoded audio. Later discs used one of the analog channels to record an RF-modulated Dolby Digital/AC3 soundtrack and/or used the PCM tracks to encoded a DTS soundtrack. LCD: Liquid Crystal Display. A display that consists of two polarizing transparent panels and a liquid crystal surface sandwiched in between. Voltage is applied to certain areas, causing the crystal to turn dark. A light source behind the panel transmits through transparent crystals and is mostly blocked by dark crystals. LCOS: Liquid Crystal on Silicon. Letterbox: Format used widely on laser disc and many DVDs to fit wideaspect-ratio movies (1.85:1 and 2.35:1, for example) into a smaller frame, such as the 1.78:1 area of an anamorphic DVD or the 1.33:1 area of a laser disc or video tape. The image is shrunk to fit the screen, leaving blank space on the top and bottom. This process sacrifices some vertical detail that must be used to record the black bars. Live Shot: Video broadcasted in real-time. Live Special Report (LSR): A news story broadcast in real-time covering breaking news or a special event. Luminance: The black and white (Y) portion of a composite, Y/C, or Y/Pb/Pr video signal. The luminance channel carries the detail of a video signal. The color channel is laid on top of the luminance signal when creating a picture. Having a separate luminance channel ensures compatibility with black-andwhite televisions. Man on the Street (MOS): Clips of randomly selected people speaking. The name originates from the practice of news crews interviewing people on street sidewalks. Matte White: Projection vinyl with a smooth white surface. Negative Gain Screen: Material that reflects less light than a reference material. Often used for DLP and LCD projection systems. Nonlinear Editing: Digital video systems that allow for clips to be extracted without affecting the master recording. NTSC: National Television Standards Committee. Government-directed committee that established the U.S. color TV standard in 1953. Also known, sarcastically, as Never Twice the Same Color or Never The Same Color due to the inherent difficulty in achieving proper color calibration. Outcue/Outq/Out-Point: These words all refer to the final few seconds of audio signifying the conclusion of the production. Package: A completed and fully edited video piece. Phase: Time relationship between signals; it's all relative. PIP: Picture-in-picture. Pixel: Contraction of picture element. The smallest element of data in a video image. Plasma: Flat-panel display technology that ignites small pockets of gas to light phosphors. Progressive Scanning: Each frame of a video image is scanned complete, from top to bottom, not interlaced. For example, 480p means that each image frame is made of 480 horizontal lines drawn vertically. Computer images are all progressively scanned. Requires more bandwidth (twice as much vertical information) and a faster horizontal scan frequency than interlaced images of the same resolution. Projection System: Display that projects image onto a screen. Raw Edit/Rough Cut: Video edited together without a voiceover, oncamera announcer or text so that separate narration or audio can be added. Rear Screen Projection: A process of projection where an image is projected on the back surface of a screen placed between the audience and the projector. This allows for a very clean front-of-the-house look in your meeting room because all production equipment is in the back-of-the-house, behind the screen. RGB: Red, Green, Blue. Can refer to an unprocessed video signal or the color points of a display device. Together these three colors make up every color seen on a display device. RPTV: Rear-Projection Television. Scan Lines: The lines drawn by an electron gun in a CRT system to make up the picture. Drawn horizontally, from left to right, starting at the top left and working to the bottom right. SDTV: Standard Definition Television. Lower-resolution subset of the ATSC's DTV system. 480i is typically accepted as an SD signal. Digital broadcasters can offer multiple sub-programs at SDTV quality, as opposed to one or two HD programs. Digital satellite and digital cable often refer to the majority of their programs as SDTV, somewhat erroneously, as neither system has anything to do with DTV, though both, technically, consist of a digital 480i signal. Sigout: The final words of a segment used to signify the production’s conclusion. Source: A component from which the system's signals originate. DVD player, AM/FM tuners, and VCRs are sources: 2 Pull-down Recognition or 3:2 Inverse Telecine: Film is usually recorded at 24 frames per second. NTSC video (North America) is 30 frames (60 fields) per second. In order to get smooth motion, the film frames are broken into video fields in a 3-2-3 sequence. 3 fields for the first film frame, 2 fields for the second film frame, and so on. If a line doubler doesn't compensate for the extra field during playback on a progressive-scan display, the image will have noticeable motion artifacts. A line doubler with 3:2 pull-down recognition or 3:2 inverse telecine can see this sequence in the signal and correct for it by making sure the last field in the first frame isn't mixed with the first field of the second frame. Standup: The portion of video in which the reporter directly speaks into the camera. If a standup concludes a package, it contains a sigout. If other video precedes and follows a standup, the segment is referred to as a bridge. Uniformity: Even distribution across a given space. In video, uniformity can refer to the distribution of light (hot spotting) or color. Unity Gain: Output that equals the input. Unity gain screen material reflects as much light as the reference material. Has an even dispersion of light. UHD:Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD User-Generated Content (UGC): Text, photos, video or audio supplied by the customers of a company. Video Mapping: A technology to “paint” multiple video sources onto a stage or building where the image can be tightly trimmed around stage or building elements without necessarily needing multiple video projectors. Used to animate a stage set, change the entire mood of an event in real-time and provide an added wow factor. Voice-over (VO): Verbal audio played over video. Wall-to-Wall Coverage: A continuous broadcast report of a single story with few to no interruptions, usually reserved for particularly significant stories. Y/C: Abbreviation for luminance/ chrominance, aka S-video signal. Color and detail signals are kept separate, thus preventing composite video artifacts. Cable uses four-pin connector. Used with S-VHS VCRs, DVD players, Hi-8, and DBS receivers.